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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  January 12, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: islamic state supporters hack u.s. military social media accounts. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. judy woodruff is on assignment. also ahead this monday, france mobilizes 10,000 troops to protect the country. as police say as many as six terror cell members may still be at large. plus, the push to stop the trafficking of women and children in india, and the struggle to win over police to join the fight. i'm once again reminded why slavery still exist. the police do not want to
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implement the laws on behalf of women and girls. >> ifill: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> and the william and flora
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hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: the u.s. central command's social media websites were hacked today. the hackers called themselves cyber-caliphate and said they acted on behalf of islamic state militants. threats posted on centcom's twitter feed included a warning that said: "american soldiers, we are coming. watch your back." other postings showed soldiers at work, and even listed names and phone numbers of military personnel. and, there were scenarios for conflict with north korea and china, but a pentagon spokesman
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said none of the material was classified. brian fung of "the washington post" has followed the story, and spoke with us earlier. >> looks mainly as though the attackers went to public sources of information and grabbed screen shots and other reports about u.s. military personnel, retired army officers, so on to release online to make it look as though they'd penetrated the pentagon's network. so far, there doesn't appear to be any major indication that's happened. >> ifill: the hackers also uploaded an islamic state recruiting video to centcom's youtube account with images of fighters carrying out operations. fung says the hackers may have recently attacked several news outlets as well. >> like a lot of hacker organizations, we don't know a whole lot about these guys except for the fact that they're apparently behind a couple of attacks on some local news outlets earlier this month, and in those attacks they went after some newspapers and local
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cbs afull yachts. other than that, however, we don't know a whole lot about the hackers behind this latest attack. >> ifill: centcom's twitter and youtube account were suspended after being compromised. but a pentagon spokesman dismissed the hack as "little more than a prank." president obama called today for new efforts to beef up the nation's cyber-security. he spoke before word emerged of the attack on central command. instead, he cited the hack of sony pictures. his proposals included tougher laws against identity theft and new protections for students' data. >> this is a direct threat to the economic security of american families and we've got to stop it. if we are going to be connected, then we need to be protected. as americans, we shouldn't have to forfeit our basic privacy when we go online to do our business. >> ifill: the president plans to include the cyber-security ideas in his state of the union address next week. french police officials now say as many as six members of a terror cell may still be on the
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loose. that word came today as police and troops spread out in the wake of last week's bloodshed in paris. guns at the ready and eyes on the streets. security forces kept close watch as parents dropped off children off at jewish schools in paris this morning. they were among nearly 15000 police and soldiers dispatched to beef up security across france. >> ( translated ): we are going to be very cautious, but we will open the school as usual, we are going to teach as usual, we will behave as usual, because that's the best way to resist. >> ifill: last week's terror attacks left 17 people dead including four at a kosher grocery store on friday. a muslim employee there helped save 15 others, but he says police first thought he was a terrorist, too. >> ( translated ): yes, they did. when i emerged, they told me to put my hands on my head and to
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lie on the ground. i panicked. there were lots of people and a lot of shouting. >> ifill: meanwhile, prime minister manual valls told bfm-tv today that the manhunt for accomplices continues. one may have helped post this video on sunday, recorded earlier by amedy coulibaly. he was the gunman at the jewish grocery, and had also killed a french policewoman. in the message, he pledged allegiance to the islamic state group. >> ( translated ): what we are doing is totally legitimate, given what they are doing. one can't attack and get nothing in return. >> ifill: coulibaly died when police stormed the grocery. but the hunt for his fugitive wife, hayat boumeddiene, came up empty. newly released security camera video showed her arriving, with a male companion, in istanbul turkey on january 2. turkey's interior minister said today there had been no reason to stop her. >> ( translated ): there was no notice from france on this person stating that she is
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dangerous and she should be banned from entering the country. therefore, there isn't a specific entry ban on this person. >> ifill: there was no ban on her exit either, turkish officials now say she crossed into syria last thursday, one day after 12 people were shot dead at "charlie hebdo," a satirical paris newspaper. the gunmen there, brothers said and cherif kouachi, had known her husband since 2005. they, too, died in a police shootout on friday. the week of terror brought out well over one million people in paris on sunday for a march of unity that featured a number of world leaders. the american ambassador to france, jane hartley, represented the united states. but the administration suffered withering criticism for failing to send anyone of higher rank. white house spokesman josh earnest conceded today that was a mistake. >> some have asked whether or not the unites states should have sent someone with a higher profile than the ambassador to
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france, and i think its fair to say that we should have sent someone with a higher profile to be there. >> ifill: secretary of state john kerry will travel to paris on friday. the white house plans a summit on how to counter violent extremism, next month. and, we'll get an update on the link between the paris attacks and yemen, after the news summary. >> ifill: secretary kerry arrived in pakistan today, pressing for more action against taliban safe havens along the afghan border. the visit came as officials reopened a school where taliban attackers killed 150 classmates and teachers last month. students return to class tomorrow. northeastern nigeria is reeling from new carnage caused by boko haram. witnesses say the islamist militants used young girls, about ten-years-old, in suicide bombings on saturday and sunday. nearly 20 people were killed. it's also been reported the militants killed as many as 2,000 people last week around baga, in borno state, after seizing a key military base.
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nigeria's military claim the true figure is 150 dead including militants. cuba completed its release of 53 political prisoners today, under last month's diplomatic deal with the united states. they were on a list of opposition figures jailed for urging political and social reforms. a cuban dissident leader says 17 of the 53 had already been released before president obama announced a restoration of ties with havana. investigators in indonesia finally have their hands on a black box recorder from that crashed air-asia jetliner. it was pulled from the underwater wreckage today, and taken to jakarta for examination. the other black box, the flight data recorder, remains lodged under parts of the plane. officials appealed for patience as they piece together what happened. >> ( translated ): i urge all experts not to give any theory if they do not have a valid data and please don't make people confused. we urge people to wait and be patient with our ongoing investigations. i hope all data that we collect
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will be good and valid so our team can analyze it faster. >> ifill: all 162 people on board were killed in the december crash. but so far, only 48 bodies have been recovered. back in this country, new york city's new inspector general accused police of using banned chokeholds sometimes as a first response. he also said the department has failed to punish the practice. the report follows a grand jury's decision not to indict an officer in the chokehold death of staten island resident eric gardner last summer. two policemen in albuquerque, new mexico, were charged with murder today, in the death of a homeless man last march. the victim had a history of mental illness, but video from a police camera appeared to show he was trying to surrender, when the officers fired. >> we think that there's evidence that gives us the legal standard probable cause. we've always said that if we can meet that standard, we will go forward.
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and we believe that we can meet that standard and we are going forward. >> ifill: after the killings the u.s. justice department issued a sharply critical report on the police department's use of force. supporters of the keystone pipeline project move to advance it in the senate. they want a procedural vote to clear the way to complete the pipe like. the bill passed the house but the white house warned of veet o. in health news today, a review for the world health organization finds online medical training is just as effective as traditional training. it says so-called e-learning could give the world millions more doctors and nurses especially in poor nations where the need is greatest. and another new study finds head start programs can help fight obesity. university of michigan researchers found obese and overweight children were more likely to lose weight in the program, which focuses in part on healthy eating and physical activity. the findings appear in the
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journal "pediatrics." wall street started the week by giving ground as falling oil prices pulled stocks lower. the dow jones industrial average lost 96 points to close at 17,640; the nasdaq fell 39 points to close at 4,664; and the s&p 500 slipped 16 to finish at 2,028. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour. where westernized jihadists go to train. rising anti-semitism in france prompts more jews to leave for israel. holding india's police forces accountable in the fight against human trafficking. how the price at the pump affects american car buying. a bipartisan plan to un-stick capitol hill gridlock. plus, how the arts and humanities are good for the economy. >> ifill: the discovery that one of the brothers involved in the paris attacks received al qaeda
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training in yemen, put that terrorist group-- and yemen-- back in the spotlight. joining me for more on the threats from both, and the u.s. strategy to try to contain them, is chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner. so, margaret, do these attacks in paris change the assessment here of what the risks are? >>are? i don't think it changes the assessment because u.s. intelligence officials have been saying they thought the real danger was not so much returning foreign fighters but at least even lone wolves are those inspired to attack. so one u.s. official told me he was really not surprised by what happened in paris. as you know, the chief spokesman for islamic state, back in september, called on followers in all these western countries to attack their own targets at home. you saw some attacking canada, you saw attempted attacks and hostage taking in australia. so from the u.s. perspective,
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the u.s. views it as a pretty good bead on the very few from u.s. have gone to iraq and syria. even though these two brothers were on the no-fly list they're worried there are plenty of others out there who are inspired, who can get into the united states without a visa to come from western europe. >> ifill: what is it about yemen? you were there in 2010, reporting for us. at the time, there was some question about whether it was a hot bed for jihaddism, and i'm wondering whether it is again. >> yes. -- yes and yes. i went to try to figure out why it is considered a hot bed. senior officials say yemen is the greatest threat to american security out there. i was stunned because that was not the thinking in early 2010. the reasons are both his historic and today.
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historically, yemenis have punched above their weight. then when what you had was the formation within yemen of sawed yand yemeni branches combine to create the al quaida-arabian peninsula. the saudis are very tough on people like that. the yemenis do not control most of their own territory, so you have a permissive environment because you have vast, ungoverned spaces, then you have enter the phenomenon of al-awlaki, this very effective american-born preacher who found haven there, the yemenys always give haven. then returning guantanamo detainees who were saudi who would not have been allowed to exist in saudi arabia but came to yemen, and a very ineffective government that the u.s. was trying to help. >> ifill: i wonder about the distinction anymore. al quaida on the arabian peninsula is different in theory
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from the islamic state group. >> yes. >> ifill: we heard one suspect say he was representing al quaida and the other said he was representing i.s. is that a distinction without difference anymore? >> one intelligence official said he thinks it's 50% crab regulation and 50% competition. no doubt they're competing in sir. i can't al quaida happens to be fighting with western-baghdad rebels with president assad. they share the same airnlings anti-western and anti-local governments who are, they consider, too western or too alhide with the west. so in that sense, the concern of intelligence officials is there's been too much made of the separation and even in the inner circles of the intelligence community, you start with groups and you keep analyzing the groups and stove pipes and you miss the connections. >> ifill: final question for you. there has been much to do about
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whether the president should have gone to the big march in paris over the weekend and today the white house acknowledged maybe someone more high-ranking if not the president should have gone. is this of concern in europe? >> talking to the senior official in europe and others, they don't want to criticize the president, and the cooperation the u.s. is giving is huge, so operationally, no complaint. but you can always count on the tabloids in britain and the daily mail saying obama snubs paris rally. >> ifill: tabloids here as well. margaret warner, thank you. >> ifill: as we reported earlier thousands of french police were dispatched today to secure jewish sites throughout france. friday's attack on the kosher grocery came as a shock to many around the world. many french jews were less surprised.
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anti-semitic attacks, often violent, in the country were on the rise in 2014. the number of jews fleeing france to make a new home in israel more than doubled last year growing from 3,400 in 2013 to 7,000. "the atlantic's" jeffrey goldberg was in paris last week before the attacks happened reporting on the growing threats to the country's jewish community. jeffery, welcome. >> brown: thank you. >> ifill: are these specific new threats or something that's just been continuing? >> brown: the french-jewish community has been living a certain reality for quite a long time, already. two years ago there was an horrific attack on a jewish school in toulouse three children murdered by a returning jihadist. this is in the category of shocking but not surprising. the rest of france is sort of coming on board to the realization of what's going on. >> ifill: these attacks last week in paris put it into a new light. >> brown: definitely and definitely increased the
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urgency. i think it was the amplification effect of having the horrific charlie hebdo attack and then realizing another type of first-tier target for these guys would be any kind of soft jewish site. a supermarket is very seas to attack. one of the reasons a supermarket like that was attacked was synagogues and schools are already protected. that's why the steps to put soldiers in front of jewish schools was so dramatic because it's a recognition that even with all the police have been doing, they haven't been doing enough. >> ifill: cheers extremists trying to make a point but does it extend to the larger community as well? >> brown: to the larger non-jewish community? >> ifill: yes. >> brown: i just got back and i think everyone now feels that the country is under siege in in a way. i don't want to overstate it but there is a siege feeling. you see it on the street, on the metro, the trains that they're behind the 8 ball a little bit, that these guys especially
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people who have been radicalized in syria, yemen and elsewhere are traveling back and forth and i think there's also this overwhelming realization in france last week that it takes one or two or three people to completely turn upside down a country and that's what everybody is scared about. >> ifill: the difference between people in general who are scared everybody being scared, and the jewish community in particular, is that some of them are getting on planes and flying to israel. >> brown: right. the jewish community is targeted in a more intensive way also has a way out. eth not only israel people are going to. canada, some are coming to the u.s. it's not an exodus yet to borrow from an older jewish story, it's not an exodus jet and what the french government is worried about is it will become an exodus. i talked to the french president manuel valls who is very
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strenuous on this point. he said if 100,000 jews were to flee france, fraps would stop being france. one to have the core ideas was the emancipation of the jews in the time of the french revolution. if the jews no longer feel it's safe then the whole idea of the republic kind of collapses on itself. one other point that the french prime minister and other french officials are making are things that start with the jews never end with the jews. in other words it's that old form l.a. first they came for the jews and i wasn't a jew so i didn't say anything. but in this case they came for the cartoonists in the middle of the week and by the end of the week they're coming back for the jews. there is a feel that if this isn't nipped in the bud churches, schools, shopping malls might be targeted. >> ifill: is the prime minister speaking generally for the entire french government because, as you know, there have
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been far right parties who they believe have exacerbated this attitude and problem and i wonder whether he is speaking for everybody? >> brown: well, he's speaking for the president, i think, number two, and the president is number one. he's speaking for the security infrastructure. there's a fascinating and troubling thing going on. traditionally, before the new wave antisemitism was mainly located in france in the extreme right. now the extreme right has turned more anti-muslim than anti-jewish, so it's trying to appeal to jews in saying we're the only ones who can stand up for your rights. >> ifill: that's turned upside down. >> brown: yeah, and most to have the jewish leadership still understands that, you know they might not like muslims but i but they also don't like jews. so you have a situation in which muslim terrorist are as tacking jewish targets. muslims in france feel oppressed, the right wing
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doesn't like anybody. it's a difficult situation. >> ifill: the friction, did it ramp up this summer after the disputes in the gaza strip israeli-palestinian? >> brown: whenever that subject is in the news it intensifies actions on the ground across europe. obviously, when people are yelling hamas, hamas to the jews, they have deeper pathologies at work. there is obviously legitimate criticism of israel and the french government for policies in the middle east and that's one basket of issues. what we saw in the summer with attacks on synagogues, i had been in a lot of the towns are things take place, really horrifying attacks of people yelling death to the jews and attacking people physically that is, joked say, sparked by a certain understanding of the middle east. it's no excuse, of course, but quickly spins out of control. >> ifill: is there any
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government efforts underway to curb this? >> brown: the french government says they're working hard on counterradicallization and on the security front in tracking people coming back from the syrian front, working on counterradicallization in prisons, on education but i didn't meet anyone who felt like the situation was under control. >> ifill: jeffrey brown, thank you very much. >> brown: thank you. >> ifill: now to india, and a crusade to end child sex trafficking. special correspondent fred de sam lazaro traveled there recently to take a closer look at the issue, and the often unsuccessful efforts to combat the practice. tonight, we have the first of his two reports. they are part of our agents for change series. (sound of children playing) >> reporter: there was an
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unusualemonstration in this town on the boarder of india, nepal. that's because most women with backgrounds of prostitution are rarely seen in public. they talk about social evils in the social ladder at which they're at the very boddum. >> wherever we go, we're all low-classed. prostitution is passed from mother to daughter and father to son. >> reporter: she is a former journalist who started a group called "on our own" which organized the lal raleigh. the group rescued many women taught them crachts and put their daughters in school. they're also part of a protest movement that followed the fatal gang rape of a delhi college student two years ago, a campaign that got lawmakers to act against what many called a culture of rape and mo.
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rape. the law recognizes the women as victim. >> the consent of a victim to her own exploitation will still put the blame on the perpetrator who used her consent to traffic her. >> reporter: flyers were distributed to inform people to have the new laws and the victory by n a recent court case. the court ordered citizen committees be set up in every community in this region. the committees would gather cayta on every child up to 18 years old in the communities and essentially keep tabs on the welfare of the children to ensure no child is trafficked when i worked here eight years ago, women could not look up. they had to cover their head and
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were terrified of the traffickers beating them up. now the whole system is changed and traffic eradicated. >> reporter: laws are only as good as enforcement as we would see hours after the rally. a couple of staffers came to this police station inside india along the nepal border. they learned at least two young women have been trafficked and making final arrangements with the police to conduct a raid to rescue them tonight. the team met up at 6:00 p.m. they hadn't told police where they were going beforehand for fear traffickers would be tipped off. once they shared the information, they were asked to wait because the female officers who were to accompanied them had been delayed. when the women still hadn't arrived two hours later the raid proceeded anyway, hours after the planned start.
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three women and six policemen. >> this is where the customers are brought in. >> reporter: a few minutes later they were in the local red-light area and in a three-rove hubble where they expected one young woman was being held. it was dank, dark and deserted. what's going on? >> i think the girl has been kept at the police station for two hours. we suspect they send information to the traffickers here because there's not a man in sight, which is very unusual in the red light area. where are the customers? it's very very odd. >> reporter: signing thing next door. a deserted home, evidence this
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too was a brothel whose occupants left in a hurry. >> there's evidence someone just ran. the blanket still on the bed. >> reporter: further in the courtyard, a door padlocked on the outside of another home used as a brothel. the police were armed with big rifleles but had no means to break the lock open. the task fell finally to a man said to be related to the building owner. the occupants are suspected to have fled over the wall in the back when they heard the group arrive in the front and she mildly admonished the policemen. >> coming forward when you do such raids, you should think about circling a home like this so people don't have the opportunity to run away. and you folks are not gathering any evidence. could you please take some of this? let me show you. >> reporter: an officer duly
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followed but did not record anything. with the lock finally broken, they found a framed picture of one of the young women they were looking for. the man who let them in initially denied knowing her but then relented and said he knew where she was being held. the police ordered him to produce her in one hour at the police station. so he's gone off to bring the girl, ostensibly. do you think you will see her this evening? >> if the cops want you will see her. >> reporter: at the station i asked the obvious question. the suspicion immediately is somebody maybe from your own police force has tipped them off. he was more comfortable in
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hindi,less comfortable with the question. said he didn't have information but promised to investigate. the young woman never showed up at the station but the female police officers finally tid, too late to have any effective role in the attempted rescue. there were no police vehicles available to get here from their base at another station, they complained. >> i wondered why because it was never implemented. this is back to ground zero. the police, come what may, do not want toimple meant laws on behalf of women and girls. >> reporter: she said part of the job of activist is to jade educate an ill-informed police force on the laws and hold them accountable. in its years the group has helped 20,000 young women and girls leave or not enter sex trade. fred de sam lazaro in india for the pbs "newshour".
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>> ifill: on tomorrow night's report, fred goes on another rescue raid with a very different outcome. his reporting is a partnership with the under-told stories project at st. mary's university of minnesota. >> ifill: one year ago, when automakers held their big auto show in detroit, a gallon of gas went for an average of three dollars and 31 cents. now, as the auto show gets underway again, it's dropped by a third, all the way down to two dollars and 13 cents a gallon. and that presents some intriguing challenges this year. on one hand, manufacturers like g.m. are creating more fuel efficient cars, like the bolt, a new electric-powered concept car which is designed to get 200 miles from a single charge. but on the other end of the spectrum, big new suv's and sedans are rolling off production lines for buyers now less worried about gas prices. john stoll is the global auto editor for "the wall street journal" and he joins me from detroit.
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after all the bright shining things at the auto show john, what are the trends you're seeing? >> the trend is definitely back toward big trucks and suv's in terms of the conversation now we're having about the immediate environment. the economy is doing well, gas prices down to $2 a gallon or less, and there is a lot of what a lot of automakers think is a natural progression toward the suv and truck body style in most of america so they're catering to that. at the same time you have this tension. while dealers want more and more trucks and suv's, regulators one more things like the chevy bolt or tesla, vehicles that can run on battery or electricity and get better fuel economy. so that tension is di de fining the auto show more than anything at this point. >> ifill: are the things most
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exciting the great big luxury suvs or the new little cars you can plug in or a little bit of both? >> i think somewhere in between. on the show floor you have some super cars, the first cars that are taken out of the product lineup when things are bad. an example, gored has the g.t. or they're calling it the phoenix is back, a super car made from carbon fiber. a 3.5 3.5-liter turbo engine, built for gas miles which is a new conversation in that vehicle but shows exactly where the automakers are going. even in the high-end, super luxury super performance, they know fuel economy is important. the regulators are going to start asking them in two years and then another decade down the road where are you at with the mandates put in place and even super cars and trucks have to
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get more fuel efficient. >> ifill: so the mandates stay in place even though grass prices might bounce back. >> yeah, i think the review the government will have with the auto industry in 2017 will be more important. at $2 a gallon, it's hard to get customers to buy into the proposition that hybrids ant electric vehicles make which is you pay more up front for the battery, the capability, the engineering, more weight in the car, but the payoff is at $4 a gallon you start getting that money back. at $2 it takes a lot longer to get that money back and consumers understand and want capability and want to guy vehicles that, you know aren't as expensive to fill up in an area like this. so a lot of this depend on how long the gas prices last.
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this could last a sun stained period of time. a lot more automakers are saying they could see a bounce back quickly, that they're prepared for something nearer term. regardless, regulators and automakers will have to have a discussion about what they want, more predictable gas price or an economy rolling with the lower gas price. >> ifill: that's the dilemma. how does a company or auto buyer plan for the long term in what kind of strategy do you employ in trying to decide what kind of choices to make? >> it -- the auto buyer is saying is it time to buy an suv, and you're filling up a vehicle that costs $40 for a $20 tank. fit goes up to $4 a gallon, that doubles. it's hard to make the decision. now the buyer is saying we have
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about 45% mix trucks and suv's now it's about 55%. the automakers haveo to spendo far more than before. 20 years ago, they were designing cars with where gas prices were going $2-$4, most were projecting prices would go up. now the regulators are the ones determining where the automakers are innovating toward. that's why you see vehicles like the chevy bolt. it's innovated takes on tesla and most agree this is what the auto industry should be doing but the reality is it doesn't make sense in a $2 a gallon gasoline environment. >> ifill: thank you. thanks, gwen. >> ifill: the republican controlled congress is back in session. preparing to do battle with the
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democrat who controls the white house. but does a divided government have to be a partisan government? we listened in last week as democratic pollster peter hart gathered a focus group in aurora colorado, to talk about whether the divide in washington can be bridged. the event was sponsored by the annenberg school of public policy at the university of pennsylvania. here's a sampling of what the voters had to say. with a democratic president and a republican congress, i'm afraid there will be more of a stalemate than anything else. >> the change in the cast and characters probably won't create a dramatic change because of the infighting that we can't go across the aisle, we can't smile or touch or talk to somebody that's different. >> i think we can actually get more done. >> how many agree? i think this new congress -- congress and president may get more done, how many say i agree with rick's statement?
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>> i'm right in the middle of that. >> reporter: so i'm not getting a lot of people jumping up and saying there's going to be more done. >> they're politicians, they're out for their own agenda, seems like. >> from what i've seen in the last several years, i feel like we're in a do-nothing mode for the next two years because anything that the president wants to do, congress will disagree with, and vice versa. >> ifill: for a deeper look at what's causing the gridlock judy woodruff sat down recently with two former lawmakers from opposite sides of the aisle. democrat martin frost and republican tom davis are the authors of a new book: "the partisan divide." >> woodruff: former representative martin frost former representative tom davis. we thank you both for joining us. >> our pleasure. thank you. >> reporter: so much already has been said and written about what's wrong with congress, how how divided and polarized it is. what made you two think you had something to add to the debate
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we're hearing every day? martin frost? >> we're a disappearing breed. we're moderate democrat and republican. we thought we had something to say. >> i don't think tblib talked about why it is. we know it's dysfunctional, but don't know what the root causes, that that are external factors. there is an ideological media. these are business models where people cater to certain audiences and feed them what they want to hear, they're taken the message away from political leaders and carry the messages and the internet, too. finally, the mon yp has moved away from the parties after campaign finance. and with citizens united the
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money is out on the wings on the right and left and not with the party. >> because of one-party districts, people are looking over their shoulder, republicans are worried about someone running from the far right, democrats are worried they might have a challenge from the far left in the primary. so it's not they lose a primary but they change their voting pattern to prevent a primary opponent and makes it hard to compromise. >> woodruff: need to write a lot about redistricting so-called gerrymandering. i'm interested in a lot of things, one, is tom davis, you write a chapter and the parliamentary effects the nationalizing of american politics. we're used to hearing tip o'neal saying all politics is local. so what do you mean by this? >> legislative races today, it is parliamentary, people vote the party not the person. very few individuals are a con ditch wednesdayy not in their party area.
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how many democrats holding a district 70% or better than reagan and bush, none are over 52%. the worst part is not only are the voters acting in a parliamentary fashion, voting straight party, but when members get to congress they're acting like it's a parliamentary system which instead of being the minority party, you're the opposition party. >> you saw this in the last election, last november in that you had democrats running red states who tried to sell, they've really been good for the state, this is what they've done for the statement voters could have caredless and voted straight ticket. >> woodruff: some of the remedies you suggest would surprise people. martin frost, you said bring back earmarks, ways individual members of congress can insert something in a spending bill to benefit some project important to them. >> judy, as long as they are transparent, as long as you put your name on it and it affects your district or your state, not
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something in another part of the country, it makes you a player and it makes it possible then for the leadership to work with you and to help you and for you to then help them on a consensus piece of legislation. i mean i was very proud, i got an ear mark to build a mass transit system in dallas called dart. if i hadn't gotten that earmark, we wouldn't have mass transit in dallas today. i put out a press release about it and saying the business community loved it. that's what they wanted for the city. these had a lot of intrinsic value. they permitted members not to pass the buck to the administration to make the decisions, they got the make the decision, and gave the leadership opportunity to work with members on critical issues and perhaps the member would find it in his or her heart and come to the middle and vote for some kind of con sees sus relation. >>legislation. >> woodruff: one of the things you recommended is wanting to go back, basically, to donors being
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able to give money directly to the political parties. you're saying it was transparent before we need to go back to that. but, you know, i've talked to folks about that who say the fact that the federal office holders or seekers could go to wealthy donors and say give me lots of money, whether you're democrat or republican even if it is transparent, why doesn't that invite corruption? >> what do you think you have now? >> right now you have interest groups that put out and target members who don't vote a certain way. the only reason you had 70 members vote for aid after hurricane sandy is several groups, heritage action freedom works, basically threatened to go after members who voted that kind of aid. it's worse today than ever. parties have been a central force in american politics for 200 years. that money will go somewhere and if you don't give it to parties in a transparent action it's out
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on the wings in dark transactions. >> the outside group is not reportable. those groups don't report their donors. so we have the worst of all worlds now. big money is going to forces that are not controlled by political parties that have their own agenda whereas if contributions went to parties, they would be fully disclosed. >> woodruff: don't they all call for the kind of changes in the courts or the part of congress that are just not politically realistic. >> they do require congress to act, that's correct, and the question is will the public get so fed up with the current system that the public and in congress makes -- and demand congress makes changes. in this area you can't get two-thirds of the house to amend the constitution. >> the courts spoke and added more money to the parties in.
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the last appropriation bill that passed at the end of the year, they added more money from the parties to individuals. they recognize this has to happen. >> woodruff: "the partisan divide," congress in crisis from two former members. martin frost, tom davis. thank you. >> thank you. >> ifill: finally tonight, the government released new data today showing that the arts and culture sectors contribute more to the u.s. economy than previously thought. jeffrey brown recently sat down with the heads of the two government agencies tasked with promoting the arts and humanities. to discuss those findings and the state of the arts in 2015. >> brown: jane chu was born in oklahoma from parents who immigrated in china. when her father died it was music to help her through. >> i tinted have words to articulate the grief of a loss of a parent and certainly in my
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situation having man trine at home and english in school. but music for some reason gave me a way to express myself and i realize the power of it. >> khu would become a leading arts administrator heading the kaufman center for the performing arts in kansas city. seven months ago, she was confirmed as the 11th chair of the national endowment for the arts. william would eventually rise to become president of colby college in maine. six months ago adams became chairman for the national endowment for the humanities. >> the issues we face are not fundamentally scientific and technical problems. the big challenges we face as a country revolve again around our history, our culture ideals and values. >> and where there is no vision the people perish.
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>> brown: the two agencies and the n.e.a. helped support the "newshour's" arts coverage are turning 50 this year, they were signed into law by president lyndon johnson add a rose garden ceremony in september 1965. where he added this... >> we and america have not always been kind to the artists and the scholars who are the creators and the keepers of our vision. somehow the scientists always seem to get the penthouse, while the arts and the humanities get the basement. >> brown: 50 years later i chalked with chu and adams ant their biggest challenges today. >> there is a perception that the arts are off in a cycle o that they are elitists, that they are only used in one way,
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but they really are attached to all we do everything from the economy to human development, education and our ability to simply live a quality of life. so we want to make sure that people understand how effective the arts can be for them. >> brown: newtata released by the n.e.a. suggest whether or not people see or understand the arts that way, they certainly are participating in them. in 2012 for example, 120 million people, more than half the country's adults, saw a show, attended a live performance or viewed an art exhibition. together, producing nearly $700 billion in economic activity. more than 4% of the country's gross domestic product. for its part, the n.e.h. which gives grants for research, education and programs in the humanities is also trying to make a stronger case for its place in the national life. in that vein it's launched the common good initiative designed
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to engage scholars and the publicnon a variety of issues like the balance between liberty and security and how to better incorporate veterans back into civilian life. is it a critique of the university to say that you need to connect them better that scholars need to connect their work more to the general public? >> in a way, i think it can be or it is. i do think there are ways in which academic humanities have been too inward looking and too inwardly focused and preoccupied with very professional concerns. i understand where that's the case and sometimessist essential to certain kinds of disciplines, but i think we've lost touch with a more public understanding and practice of the humanities. i think humanists have a lot to say to the challenges like we're all facing. >> brown: for example? for example, we all live with this extraordinary explosion of technology now and we all sense
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that that technology is changing our lives in in very considerable ways. but we're not good yet at thinking about what the ways are and the impact they're having on our lives. one of the impact is this very important very difficult tension between liberty and security which is being prayed out in the government, in the press and in the country and the world generally every day. so there are a whole series of very public issues about which humanists have a great deal to say and we want in the n.e.h. to encourage them to talk about it. >> brown: since the culture war of the '80s and the contract battles of the '90s, these two agencies have found themselves under siege with threats to zero out their funding. $146 million each are their
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budgets toorksd steady for years, but below the '70s and '80s when i it adjusted for inflation. >> i understand the pressure on the federal government and sympathetic to the need to be very, very careful with our resources and to justify those resources. but the amount of money spent on our agencies is relatively small compared to the problems that we have financially and i think, to lose this final part of the investment the country's made in culture, in the cultural capital, the country would be a huge mistake. so it's making that argument in a compelling way. >> and, indeed, when we are talking about our leverage opportunities, that will alliance perfectly with what william is talking about in terms of a little goes a long way. one plus one does not equal two. when it comes to n.e.a. grants it equals seven. >> brown: in terms of the amount of money that grows from that. >> that grows from that and touches people across the
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nation. that is a very cost-effective way to use an agency. >> brown: do you feel the political pressure? i mean, does it in some ways constrain what you think you can do or the grants you can give out? >> as will expressed the people we've met, members of congress when we tell them about the activities and the program going on at the n.e.a., at the n.e.h., they see first hand and have been very receptive so we have been very appreciative. >> brown: holding steady but leveraging the authority they have to advance what are clearly passionately held ideals. all of that to be tested further in the coming year. >> ifill: again, the major developments of the day, hackers briefly took over the u.s. central command's twitter and
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youtube sites. they said they acted on behalf of islamic state militants. the pentagon said nothing classified was revealed. and french police said as many as six people linked to last week's terror attacks in paris may still be at large. at the same time, thousands of police and troops deployed to safeguard jewish schools and other sites. >> ifill: on the newshour online right now, as admissions season kicks into high gear, high school seniors are flooded with college brochures and e-mails. but while these schools aggressively recruit students they're just as likely to turn them down. it's a practice called recruit to deny, read about that process on our home page. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. >> ifill: and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm gwen ifill. we'll see you on-line and again here tomorrow evening, for all of us here at the pbs newshour thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs
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newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. >> great plunge. oil prices drop to a near six-year low following a few days of relative stability. but how low is too low when it comes to crumbling crude. >> double whammy. earning season is here and with oil prices tumbling and the dollar soaring, will companies have a new excuse for soft results. alcoa beat earnings estimates today. the former down member has seen its stocks double since tossed out of the blue chip index. this is monday, january 12th. good evening, everyone. i'm su herera. if rainy deuce and mondays always get you down you're not alone

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